People are consistently uncovered to various microbes, which might have optimistic and antagonistic well being results. Appreciable publicity the these microorganisms happens indoors, with the very best bacterial colonization reported within the kitchen. To this point, no examine has in contrast microbial communities in households throughout international locations, which is critical to find out if a core kitchen microbiota exists.
Research: Mapping the Kitchen Microbiota in 5 European Nations Reveals a Set of Core Micro organism throughout Nations, Kitchen Surfaces, and Cleansing Utensils. Picture Credit score: Africa Studio / Shutterstock.com
Concerning the examine
A current examine printed within the journal Utilized and Environmental Microbiology mapped the microbiota on kitchen surfaces and cleansing utensils to find out any associations between microbiota, family objects, and nation.
Kitchen floor and cleansing utensil samples had been collected from 74 households in Hungary, France, Portugal, Romania, and Norway. Floor samples from completely different kitchen objects had been obtained earlier than dinner preparation.
Samples from cleansing sponges and cloths had been obtained after meals preparation and subsequently subjected to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction and 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequencing. Alpha range was analyzed utilizing the Shannon index, noticed options, and Religion’s phylogenetic range.
Linear blended fashions had been used to check Alpha range variations throughout pattern sorts and international locations. Beta range evaluation was additionally carried out via unweighted and weighted UniFrac, Jaccard, and Bray-Curtis. Univariate and multivariate analyses examined variations between pattern counties and kinds.
A complete of 305 samples had been analyzed and three,487 sub-operational taxonomic items (sOTUs) had been detected from over 18.8 million sequences. A median of 61,960 sequences had been obtained for every pattern, with 5,420 sequences isoalted for each sOTU.
The kitchen microbiota comprised members from 793 genera from 297 households. Probably the most frequent sequences had been from the Proteobacteria phylum, adopted by Firmicutes, Bacteroidota, and Actinobacteria phyla.
Probably the most ample genera and households had been Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Enhydrobacter, Enterobacteriaceae, and Yersiniaceae. Forty-five sOTUs had been recognized within the Acinetobacter genus, with A. johnsonii being essentially the most frequent Acinetobacter species.
Sixty-four sOTUs represented the Pseudomonas genus. Nineteen sOTUs had been recognized throughout the Enterobacteriaceae household.
There have been 41, 12, 67, and 16 sOTUs throughout the Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Chryseobacterium, and Kocuria genera, respectively. Sixteen samples had been optimistic for Listeria, one examined optimistic for Campylobacter, and none had Salmonella.
Notably, sOTUs associated to S. enterica and Shigella/Escherichia had been detected in samples from all 5 international locations, whereas C. jejuni was current in Romanian, French, and Portuguese samples. Most of those pathogens had been comparatively much less ample.
Alpha range considerably differed between pattern sorts and throughout international locations. For instance, samples from Portugal had fewer noticed sOTUs than these from Norway and France, whereas samples from Norway, Hungary, and France had comparable ranges of Alpha range.
Comparable outcomes had been noticed with Religion’s phylogenetic range. Nation variations had been much less evident when analyses had been restricted to samples from cleansing utensils however remained vital when solely floor samples had been thought of.
Handles had the very best Alpha range based mostly on noticed options, whereas sponges had the bottom. Principal part evaluation (PCA) confirmed the tendency for microbiota clustering by pattern kind and nation. Though the microbiota in cleansing cloths and sponges had been comparable, their similarity was higher throughout international locations than between cloths and sponges.
Floor samples had been clustered by nation, thus implying that the microbiota was extra comparable in floor samples inside a rustic than a particular floor pattern throughout international locations. Nonetheless, some exceptions to this discovering had been noticed. For instance, the microbiota on French handles was extra just like that on Hungarian handles than in different French floor samples.
Some micro organism in sponges and cloths with considerably completely different relative abundances had been noticed between international locations as in comparison with floor samples. Sink samples had the very best micro organism with considerably completely different relative abundance between international locations.
Eight genera/households had been recognized because the core microbiota, of which included Acinetobacter, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas, Psychrobacter, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Enhydrobacter, and Chryseobacterium. Of those, Pseudomonas, Enhydrobacter, and Acinetobacter had been the one taxa current in all samples, which additionally exhibited the very best imply relative abundances.
Enhydrobacter, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacteriaceae had been recognized because the core sOTUs. The core microbiota assorted in relative abundance between pattern sorts and international locations. Among the many core microbiota, the relative abundances of Psychrobacter, Chryseobacterium, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas, and Enhydrobacter considerably differed between international locations.
There have been vital variations in Acinetobacter and Staphylococcus between pattern sorts, with the very best abundances in humid samples obtained from sinks, cloths, and sponges, in addition to handles, respectively. Likewise, Bacillus exhibited vital variations between pattern sorts, with the bottom abundance current in humid samples.
Regardless of the appreciable variations in kitchen requirements, dietary habits, and meals preparation practices, a core microbiota of the kitchen comprising eight taxa on the genus/household degree was recognized, with three core micro organism noticed on the sOTU degree.
Total, the examine findings increase the data base of the kitchen microbiota. Future research ought to correlate these outcomes with meals security behaviors and their affect on human well being.
- Moen, B., Langsrud, S., Berget, I., et al. (2023). Mapping the Kitchen Microbiota in 5 European Nations Reveals a Set of Core Micro organism throughout Nations, Kitchen Surfaces, and Cleansing Utensils. Utilized Environmental Microbiology. doi:10.1128/aem.00267-23